Between 2009-2017, an estimated 4,640 foreign children became affiliated with ISIS in Iraq and Syria and at least 730 infants were born to foreign parents in these territories. To date around 1,180 children have been repatriated, leaving more than 4,000 in theatre. While many are believed to have died, others are being held in detention or camps. In 2018, a judge from the Baghdad High Court confirmed that his country was holding 900 children in custody, 185 of whom were foreigners and had been convicted under terrorism legislation. What should happen with these children, as well as child affiliates who have already returned or who never left, has become the subject of a polarized international debate.